Many words and phrases used within the MoreLife and SelfSIP websites are technical scientific terms not commonly understood, are ones which have had their meanings distorted or usurped by persons biased towards certain philosophical viewpoints or are ones that we have not found to be used in English, again at least partly because of the incomplete or inconsistent philosophical basis for much of the vernacular language. Our definitions for the distorted and usurped words and phrases are an attempt to return to their consistent and unambiguous root meanings. We have coined and used those of the third class because we think they are highly descriptive and valuable to illustrate a more complete and consistent approach to the reality of human relationships.
Within any paragraph or section of text, the first usage of either type of word or phrase (technical, distorted or coined) is linked to its definition/explanation within this glossary or elsewhere.
Most of the locally defined terms in this glossary are ones that have significant and particular application to human life expansion. Many of them have one or more technical meanings within the sciences related to life expansion that are different from that of the common usage, or even within other sciences. In such cases, we have chosen to include only the meaning(s) relevant to the subject(s) covered within MoreLife. In constructing our definitions we wish to acknowledge the value of these references.
In order to prevent unnecessary duplication, we have selected several excellent sources for external definitions. However, since our usage of some terms is quite specialized and we wish to emphasize certain parts of their meanings, we often locally define terms from these dictionaries within this glossary. In addition, because many anatomical parts and various specific diseases may be of interest to the reader, links to well presented glossary information on other websites have been provided.
|Or (before a vowel) macr+ comb. form
1) Denoting large, long, or great in size or duration; large-scale.
2) Denoting larger than normal, overdeveloped.
|macrophage||Any cell of the mononuclear phagocyte system that is characterized by its ability to phagocytose foreign particulate and colloidal material. Macrophages occur in connective tissue, liver, lung, spleen, lymph nodes, and other tissues. They contain prominent lysosomes, stain with vital dyes, and play an important part in nonspecific immune reactions.|
|mer||Or constitutional unit, the repeating unit of a polymeric molecule.|
metabolize (metabolise, Br)
metabolizable (metabolisable, Br)
|1) The totality of the chemical reactions and physical changes that occur in living organisms; comprising anabolism and catabolism.
2) The totality of such processes undergone by a particular substance, or class of substances.
Metabolic: of, pertaining to, occuring in, produced by or liberated during metabolism.
Metabolize (metabolise): to affect by metabolism or to effect metabolism; metabolizable (metabolisable), adj.
|Literally: about the natural order - That branch of philosophy which deals with the basic nature and the fundamental principles of reality and existence, including time, space, matter, energy, causality and determinacy. It is important to realize that all consistent abstract constructs and human imaginings are also part of reality and subject to the consideration of metaphysics although their inclusion among the set of necessary fundamental principles is subject to elimination under the principle known as Occam's Razor. metaphysical, adj.|
|methionine||The trivial name for -amino--methylmercaptobutyric acid; 2-amino-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid; CH3-S-[CH2]2-CH(NH2)-COOH; a chiral -amino acid. L-Methionine (symbol: M or Met), (S)-2-amino-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid, is a coded amino acid, found in peptide linkage (bond) in proteins. D-Methionine (symbol: D-Met or DMet) is not known to occur naturally. In mammals methionine is glucogenic and is an essential dietary amino acid, although either enantiomer will serve (the D-form being oxidatively deaminated to the -oxo acid, which is then reaminated with inversion (Walden)).|
|The alkyl group, CH3-, derived from methane (CH4), by removal of a hydrogen atom.
Methano+: a combining form denoting the presence of a -CH2- bridge in a polycyclic hydrocarbon.
Methylation: the process of replacing one or more hydrogen atoms in a substance with methyl groups - a specific type of alkylation.
|Having a similar effect to that of a named substance or action. Ie. mimicking that substance or action.|
|mineral (nutritional)||An element substance occuring naturally in the earth's crust which forms substances of a simple and characteristic chemical composition and (usually) a crystalline structure, which are constituents of living organisms and are essential for the nutritional requirements of humans. In nutrition, minerals are often referred to by the name of the mineral's ions or typical ionic compounds within the body rather than by the name of its original compound. Thus, one uses chloridechlorine.|
|moiety||A specific section of a molecule, that has a characteristic chemical effect or property|
|The smallest physical unit of an element (see Periodic Table of Elements) or compound.
1) Of or pertaining to a molecule or molecules.
2) Consisting of or existing as molecules; (especially of certain gaseous elements) present or reacting as intact molecules rather than as atoms, ions, etc. eg. molecular oxygen (ie. dihydrogen).
3) of dimensions comparable to those of molecules.
4) Considered in terms of or at the level of molecules, or in terms of chemical substances or structures and their interconversions; eg. molecular biology, molecular medicine.
|Pertaining to a fatty acid which contains only one double bond between two of its carbons. Monounsaturated fatty acids contained in foods generally have a double bond between either the 7th and 8th, or the 9th and 10th carbons from the omega (last) carbon. These are named, respectively, omega-7 and omega-9 fatty acids. Monounsaturates occur naturally mostly in the cis form, but trans monounsaturates generated by bacteria in the rumen, are contained in ruminant products. Trans forms are also generated by the hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fats.|
|native state||(of a protein or nucleic acid) The form in which it occurs in the intact cell, its three dimensional structure depending on formation of appropriate hydrogen bonds. Since the native state of a protein is a local minimum energy state, logically it is possible for a protein to have more than one native state. The prion protein may be an example of such a protein - one of its native states being healthy and the other promoting brain diseases such as Scrapie, Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.|
|Any chemical compound produced, without active human intervention, by a living organism. naturally, advb. - referring to such a chemical compound.
Note: We have tried here to capture the generally current meaning of "natural". However, to have any meaning at all, this definition assumes there is a fundamental difference between the actions of thinking man, and the actions of all other parts of reality. This is a philosophical viewpoint with which we totally disagree.
|neurotransmitter||Any chemical substance released at the distal end of the axon of a neuron in response to the arrival of a nerve impulse that, by diffusing across a synapse or other junction, is capable of transmitting the impulse to another neuron, to a muscle cell, or to another excitable cell or, in the case of inhibitory neurotransmitters, of inhibiting the transmission. The neurotransmitter is stored in synaptic vesicles in the axon terminal; it is released into the synaptic cleft on arrival of the action potential (impulse) and diffuses to and stimulates receptors in the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. An essential component of the mechanism is a means to inactivate the neurotransmitter, eg by enzymatic metabolism of the neurotransmitter. Both excitatory (eg cholinoreceptor) and inhibitory (eg GABA receptors) are known.||Non-Aggression Principle (NAP)
|The fundamental principle of libertarian political philosophy that an individual human should not initiate actual or threatened (physical) force against, or defraud another individual or his property. The principle does not forbid the use of force in self defense since then it is not initiated.
Equity relationship means the equal requirement of interacting persons to not be violated by the other. Note that Persons who are not interacting, connected or involved in some manner do not have an Equity Relationship (because they have no relationship at all). Thus, an Equity Relationship is an event of reality which is established instantaneously with the initial interaction between two Persons (which interaction might even be Violational and cause the Equity Relationship to be "broken" at the instant of its formation).
The acronym ZAP, for Zero-Aggression Principle was suggested by L. Neil Smith, well known science-fiction writer, in a presentation at the Freedom Summit held in Phoenix AZ October 12-13 2002.
See also culpable, violator, victim.
|norepinephrine||A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla. Also called noradrenaline. Biochemically, norepinephrine is produced from the amino acid tyrosine via dopa and dopamine and in turn produces epinephrine. Physiologically it operates as a neurotransmitter in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system and in some parts of the central nervous system. It has a powerful lipolytic action, mediated by cyclic AMP, and is an agonist for adrenoreceptors, including arteriolar constriction and raised systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure.|
|Not diseased, not disordered, and not having been exposed to an experimental procedure. Compare control.
Note: It is important to realize that human individuality is so varied that there is a large range of normal behavior and vital functioning within healthy (undiseased) persons. On the other hand, an individual displays an abnormal condition when s/he objectively functions much more poorly in one or more attributes compared with some prior time or compared with clear genetic potential.
normo+, or (before a vowel) norm+, is a combining form denoting normal, used especially in biology and medicine to indicate within normal range.
|nucleic acid||Any single- or double-stranded polynucleotide of molar mass in the range 20 kDa to 40 GDa or more. Nucleic acids are either deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) or ribonucleic acids (RNA). They are universal constituents of living matter and are concerned with the storage, transmission, and transfer of genetic information.
(DNA nucleotides and base pairs) (DNA structure)
|Any substance that can be used by a human to sustain healthful and/or desirable, metabolic activities, biochemical processes, and bodily (including mental) functions.
A (nutritional) supplement is a nutrient which is taken either to augment those from food (including beyond levels which can be obtained from healthy amounts of food) OR to extend and complete the healthy effects of food and the supplementing of food nutrients.
|nutrition (adequate/ deficient/ optimum)||Medically, nutrition is adequate when it is not the overt and short-range cause of any disease, otherwise nutrition is termed deficient. A nutrient is classified as being essential by means of the deficiency disease that is caused when it is under supplied.
Note: At MoreLife, we examine the longest-range and widest/deepest effects of nutrition. Our goal, therefore, is to determine for each individual what are the components of optimal nutrition - that combination of food and supplementary nutrients which will allow the highest potential for the best combination of lifespan quality and quantity that a given individual can attain.
Body Mass Index
|An excess of anatomical fat (adipose tissue). Obesity occurs when consumption of calories is in excess of the energy needs of the body. While the amount of body fat differs between the sexes and racial/ethnic groups, subcutaneous fat is about 11% and 18% of body weight in lean men and women respectively, although even less may be more optimal for health (see calorie restriction). Strong associations exist between obesity and incidences of Diabetes Type II, coronary heart disease, cerebral hemorrhage (hemorrhagic stroke), digestive diseases, many forms of cancer, and many other causes of death. At what point body fat becomes obesity is the subject of insurance industry statistics tables and classification methods. The Body Mass Index (BMI, weight/height2 - in metric units - see BMI Calculator) is a simple, but useful indicator of "fatness" for which obesity begins at a value of 30, while normal healthy weight produces values between 20 and 24.9. However, this system does not differentiate between a body with excess fat and one highly muscled, nor between people with different frame sizes (body thicknesses); it can also yield a low score for older persons who have gained fat while losing lean muscle mass. Skin-fold, density, and bioelectric impedance measurements are other methods that measure body fat in a more direct manner.|
|objective (event or attribute)
objectivity (of a person)
|An event or experience the detection and details of which is agreed to by all reasonable observers, or can be repeatedly verified to the agreement of any reasonable person. Thus, an objective attribute is an attribute which is related *only* to that which is being observed, rather than being affected by the state of the observer.
These are sometimes termed value-free determinations, since they are kept unfiltered and unmodified by the mind's hierarchy of values.
Objectivity - a person's ability to detect and report the objective nature of an event without modification by his/her internal values. Because our brain is purposefully trained to filter its input (otherwise our mind would be swamped and impotent), objectivity is not merely a simple volitional act. Instead, a mind needs to be trained to understand, and "read between the lines" of its filters in order to become truly objective. Note however, that all events have both objective and subjective effects on all observers no matter how objective those observers may be. objectively, adv.
Compare with subjective, subjectivity.
law of parsimony
|The principle in epistemology and science that statements or facts which are unnecessary for the explanation, derivation or proof of a conclusion, and are themselves unproven, should be discarded in order to make the logical framework upon which the conclusion is based as simple as possible. Alt. spelling: Occam's|
|organ||Any part of the body of a multicellular organism that is adapted and/or specialized for the performance of one or more vital functions. The term is sometimes extended to include organelles or unicellular organisms. In animals the organs are generally made up of several tissues, one of which usually predominates, and determines the principal function of the organ. Groups of organs constitute a system, ie. cardiovascular system .|
|Pertaining to covalently bonded carbon-based compounds whether produced by lifeforms, other natural or synthetic processes.
Inorganic (compounds or moieties in biochemistry) - Those molecules (or moieties) not containing carbon which affect (interact with) lifeforms in any manner. Most of them are transformed by lifeforms. Some are actually manufactured by lifeforms and joined to organic compounds to form biologically important adducts. eg. the moiety inorganic phosphate - PO(OH)3
oxidize (oxidise, Br)
|1) The action or process of reacting with oxygen, especially the addition of oxygen to a substance.
2) The loss or removal of hydrogen from a substance.
3) The loss or removal of one or more electrons from a molecular entity, with or without concomitant loss or removal of a proton or protons.
In this sense, oxidation is the opposite of, and is always coupled to, reduction.
Oxidize (oxidise): to undergo or effect oxidation.
|oxidizing agent||Any substance or mixture which causes oxidation of the substance to which it is applied.|
|Any compound which contains oxygen, at least one other element, and at least one hydroxyl group (eg any carboxylic acid). Variant form, oxy acid.|